growing on underside of fern.
No identification made yet.
No interactions present.
I think these are the natural spores of the fern itself.
Chris Brooks - www.dragonfly-images.co.uk
My Flickr site - www.flickr.com/photos/ceb1298
Neither fungi nor galls. They are the parts of the fern that produce spores for reproduction.
I agree with Chris.
They are sporangia in which the spores are produced.
Lat/Lng: 53.4147, -2.8334
OS grid ref: SJ447912