Two queries here. What's the plant, and which insect causes the huge galls?
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The key features here are the irregular phyllaries, the scape swollen below the involvucre, and the small scales on the scape. But these together do not distinguish between Hypochaeris radicata and Scorzoneroides autumnalis.
The easy way to distinguish these two taxa is by the leaf rosette.
Lat/Lng: 51.3799, -0.6033
OS grid ref: SU972654